“Anyone who considers arithmetic methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.” John von Neumann, 1951. Given a list of n real numbers, (x1, x2, . . . , xn), the mean is defined as 1 ∑n m=n xi i=1 The standard deviation is defined as the square root of 1 ∑n n Given n and a random number generator seed, compute the standard deviation of the first n numbers returned by the generator. The generator function is given below. I apologize to all those for whom C is not a native language. unsigned long long seed; long double gen() { static const long double Z = ( long double )1.0 / (1LL<<32); seed >>= 16; seed &= ( 1ULL << 32 ) - 1; seed *= seed; return seed * Z; } Input The first line of input gives the number of cases, N (at most 40). N test cases follow. Each one is a line containing an integer, n (1 ≤ n ≤ 10, 000, 000), and an integer, seed (0 ≤ seed < 264). Output For each test case, output one line containing ‘Case #x:’ followed by the standard deviation of the first n numbers returned by gen() after seed is initialized to the given value. Round the answer to 5 decimal places. Answers with absolute error of at most 10−4 will be deemed correct. If you need a hint, read the problem again. i=1 (xi − m)2

2/2 Sample Input 5 2 16777216 2 4294967296 10000000 0 2 2147483648 10000 382759482784958 Sample Output Case #1: 0.00001 Case #2: 0.00000 Case #3: 0.00000 Case #4: 0.09375 Case #5: 1283729051.97967